[isabelle] 2 new AFP entries

Two new entries are available from https://isa-afp.org :

Category Theory with Adjunctions and Limits
by Eugene W. Stark

This article attempts to develop a usable framework for doing category theory in Isabelle/HOL. Our point of view, which to some extent differs from that of the previous AFP articles on the subject, is to try to explore how category theory can be done efficaciously within HOL, rather than trying to match exactly the way things are done using a traditional approach. To this end, we define the notion of category in an "object-free" style, in which a category is represented by a single partial composition operation on arrows. This way of defining categories provides some advantages in the context of HOL, including the ability to avoid the use of records and the possibility of defining functors and natural transformations simply as certain functions on arrows, rather than as composite objects. We define various constructions associated with the basic notions, including: dual category, product category, functor category, discrete category, free category, functor composition, and horizontal and vertical composite of natural transformations. A "set category" locale is defined that axiomatizes the notion "category of all sets at a type and all functions between them," and a fairly extensive set of properties of set categories is derived from the locale assumptions. The notion of a set category is used to prove the Yoneda Lemma in a general setting of a category equipped with a "hom embedding," which maps arrows of the category to the "universe" of the set category. We also give a treatment of adjunctions, defining adjunctions via left and right adjoint functors, natural bijections between hom-sets, and unit and counit natural transformations, and showing the equivalence of these definitions. We also develop the theory of limits, including representations of functors, diagrams and cones, and diagonal functors. We show that right adjoint functors preserve limits, and that limits can be constructed via products and equalizers. We characterize the conditions under which limits exist in a set category. We also examine the case of limits in a functor category, ultimately culminating in a proof that the Yoneda embedding preserves limits.

Cardinality of Multisets
by Lukas Bulwahn

This entry provides three lemmas to count the number of multisets of a given size and finite carrier set. The first lemma provides a cardinality formula assuming that the multiset's elements are chosen from the given carrier set. The latter two lemmas provide formulas assuming that the multiset's elements also cover the given carrier set, i.e., each element of the carrier set occurs in the multiset at least once.

The proof of the first lemma uses the argument of the recurrence relation for counting multisets. The proof of the second lemma is straightforward, and the proof of the third lemma is easily obtained using the first cardinality lemma. A challenge for the formalization is the derivation of the required induction rule, which is a special combination of the induction rules for finite sets and natural numbers. The induction rule is derived by defining a suitable inductive predicate and transforming the predicate's induction rule.




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